Spanish Loanwords

Displaying 1 - 30 of 1318

soul (usually given with a possessor prefix)
(a loanword from Spanish)

James Lockhart, Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious Examples and Texts (Stanford: Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Studies, 2001), 211.

Orthographic Variants: 
ala carcel, alacarcel

in prison (Notice how this is an entire phrase made into one word that, in meaning, ignores the imbedded preposition and article. The "a la" did not mean "to the" for the Nahuas; the "a la" became fused with the noun. Other examples are "a la calle" and "a la China"; note that accents are rare in Nahuatl, whereas cárcel would be accented today in Spanish.)

Orthographic Variants: 
alachina, ala china, a la China, ala China, allachina

China; in China; from China; or, (ditto) the Philippines; or, (ditto) the Orient; or, having to do with Asia (Notice how this is an entire phrase made into one word that, in meaning, ignores the imbedded preposition and article.)

Orthographic Variants: 
alahuerta, alauertan, alahuērtah, ala huerta

orchard; or, an intensively cultivated garden (one example specifically mentions growing flowers in the huerta)
James Lockhart, Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious Examples and Texts (Stanford: Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Studies, 2001), 210.

auh yn ompa moyetzticatca a la huerta sant cosme sant damian matlacxihuitl omey yhua chicontetl metztli yn oncan yc hualmiquanitzinoqueh yancuic teopan St. Diego. huehuecalco. = “They were at the garden of San Cosme and San Damián for thirteen years and seven months, from where they moved to the new church of San Diego in Huehuecalco” (Chimalpahin 2006: 50).
[annals (AHT, ZM); time range: 1594–1681]
Loans in Colonial and Modern Nahuatl, eds. Agnieszka Brylak, Julia Madajczak, Justyna Olko, and John Sullivan, Trends in Linguistics Documentation 35, ed. Volker Gast (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2020), 62.

Domingo yc xix. de octubre de 1603 aos. yn tlaçocihuapilli, yn monextitzino atiçapan yquac quimocahuillito, yn ompa a la huerta Sant cosme. Sant. Damian. = “Sunday the 19th of October of the year 1603 was when they went to deliver the precious lady [the Virgin] who appeared at Atiçapan to the orchard of San Cosme and San Damián” (Chimalpahin 2006: 76).
[annals (AHT, ZM); time range: 1594–1681]
Loans in Colonial and Modern Nahuatl, eds. Agnieszka Brylak, Julia Madajczak, Justyna Olko, and John Sullivan, Trends in Linguistics Documentation 35, ed. Volker Gast (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2020), 62.

oquitocaque tech a la huerta yca yn estanque ypan Pasqua (Zapata y Mendoza 1995: 588). = They buried him right next to the garden by a pool, during Easter.
[annals (AHT, ZM); time range: 1594–1681]
Loans in Colonial and Modern Nahuatl, eds. Agnieszka Brylak, Julia Madajczak, Justyna Olko, and John Sullivan, Trends in Linguistics Documentation 35, ed. Volker Gast (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2020), 62.

dragonfly (partially a loanword from Spanish, from avión, airplane)

http://listserv.linguistlist.org/pipermail/nahuat-l/2014-June/005703.html

abbess (see attestions)
(a loanword from Spanish)

to embrace, hug
(based on the loanword from Spanish, abrazar, to embrace, hug)

Fernando Horcasitas found this form was used in the language of dances that were recorded in various pueblos by ethnographers. (twentieth century)
Fernando Horcasitas, "La Danza de los Tecuanes," Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl 14 (1980), 239–286, see especially p. 257.

April
(a loanword from Spanish)

Orthographic Variants: 
açeite

oil (a loanword from Spanish)

Orthographic Variants: 
azetonas, axitonax

olive(s) (a loanword from Spanish)

minutes, proceedings of some constituted body (a word probably not used by sixteenth-century Tlaxcalans) (a loanword from Spanish)
The Tlaxcalan Actas: A Compendium of the Records of the Cabildo of Tlaxcala (1545-1627), eds. James Lockhart, Frances Berdan, and Arthur J.O. Anderson (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986), 153.

Orthographic Variants: 
aquario, qualliyos, aquaioyos, aquariyos

aquarius, a sign of the zodiac; actually, originally a loanword from Latin, although possibly similar in sixteenth-century Spanish
Lori Boornazian Diel, The Codex Mexicanus: A Guide to Life in Late-Sixteenth-Century New Spain (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2018), 172.

Orthographic Variants: 
Adam

a specific reference to the Adam of the Adam and Eve story of Christianity
Louise M. Burkhart, Before Guadalupe: The Virgin Mary in Early Colonial Nahuatl Literature, Institute for Mesoamerican Studies Monograph 13 (Albany: University at Albany, 2001), 17.

Orthographic Variants: 
acnos tey

Lamb of God
(a phrase from Latin)

Orthographic Variants: 
agusto, augustus, augusto, augustos

August, the month (see attestations)

Orthographic Variants: 
lámbra, alampreh

wire, iron, metal (see attestations); see also our entries for alāmpreh and alāmprepanō (from contemporary Eastern Huastecan Nahuatl, IDIEZ records)

an alb, a white linen tunic worn over a habit (see attestations)

Orthographic Variants: 
albasea, albansea, albasia, alfasea, aluacia, aluacia

executor of a will (see attestations)

a fruit (a loanword from Spanish, but originally from Arabic)

Orthographic Variants: 
algaite, alcayde

jailor
Frances Karttunen and James Lockhart, Nahuatl in the Middle Years: Language Contact Phenomena in Texts of the Colonial Period, Linguistics 85 (Los Angeles, University of California Publications, 1976), 54.

Orthographic Variants: 
alcarte mayor

highest magistrate of a district, often equivalent to "corregidor" and usually held by a Spanish colonial official
The Tlaxcalan Actas: A Compendium of the Records of the Cabildo of Tlaxcala (1545-1627), eds. James Lockhart, Frances Berdan, and Arthur J.O. Anderson (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986), 153.

full wording for "alcalde," in this context, an indigenous officer, on the town council (cabildo)
The Tlaxcalan Actas: A Compendium of the Records of the Cabildo of Tlaxcala (1545-1627), eds. James Lockhart, Frances Berdan, and Arthur J.O. Anderson (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986), 153.

Orthographic Variants: 
algalde, alcalte

a first-instance judge attached to a local municipal government; this was a term used for both indigenous and Spanish officials
Caterina Pizzigoni, Testaments of Toluca (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), 248.

the office of the alcalde, a member of the municipal council (partly a loanword from Spanish, with the -yotl ending from Nahuatl) (ca. 1582, Mexico City)
Luis Reyes García, ¿Como te confundes? ¿Acaso no somos conquistados? Anales de Juan Bautista (Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Biblioteca Lorenzo Boturini Insigne y Nacional Basílica de Guadalupe, 2001), 136–137.

Orthographic Variants: 
Alimania

Germany

a type of sable, short and curved, with a sharp edge only on one side, except at the point (see attestations)

crumbly shortbread.
Orthographic Variants: 
alhuacil mayor, alhuasil mayor, alhuasil mayol

a chief constable; an officer who was a part of the town council (cabildo)

Orthographic Variants: 
alguazil, alguaçil, alhuacil, alhuaçil, arguazil, alhuasil

a constable, a sub-cabildo officer
The Tlaxcalan Actas: A Compendium of the Records of the Cabildo of Tlaxcala (1545-1627), eds. James Lockhart, Frances Berdan, and Arthur J.O. Anderson (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1986), 153.