xochitl.

Headword: 
xochitl.
Principal English Translation: 

flower(s); also, a calendrical marker; also, the name of a person (can be both female and male)

Orthographic Variants: 
xuchitl, suchitl, chochitl
IPAspelling: 
ʃoːtʃitɬ
Alonso de Molina: 

xochitl. rosa, o flor. Alonso de Molina, Vocabulario en lengua castellana y mexicana y mexicana y castellana, 1571, part 2, Nahuatl to Spanish, f. 160r. col. 2. Thanks to Joe Campbell for providing the transcription.

Frances Karttunen: 

XŌCHI-TL pl: -MEH flower / rosa, o flor (M) As a modifier this has the sense ‘something precious, delicate,’ It is also conventionally paired with CUĪCA-TL ‘song’ to refer to poetry. Frances Karttunen, An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992), 329.

Lockhart’s Nahuatl as Written: 

combining form sometimes xōchi-, sometimes xōchi-. James Lockhart, Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious Examples and Texts (Stanford: Stanford University Press and UCLA Latin American Studies, 2001), 241.

Attestations from sources in English: 

auh niman ye quihuica holli copalli. amatl. xochitl. in yetl. yhuan yn itoca tlacatlaqualli. ye quitlamanilizque yn teotl = And then he took rubber, copal incense, paper, flowers, tobacco, and what are called abstinence foods with which they were to make offerings to the god. (central Mexico, early seventeenth century) Codex Chimalpahin: Society and Politics in Mexico Tenochtitlan, Tlatelolco, Culhuacan, and Other Nahuatl Altepetl in Central Mexico; The Nahuatl and Spanish Annals and Accounts Collected and Recorded by don Domingo de San Antón Muñón Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin, eds. and transl. Arthur J. O. Anderson and Susan Schroeder (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997), vol. 1, 96–97. xicalpechtica cōmamāque in tlaçosuchitl, in chimalsuchitl, in iollosuchitl inepantla icatiuh in izquisuchitl, in coztic iiesuchitl, in cacaoasuchitl, icpacsuchitl, in suchineapantli = On gourd bases they set out different precious flowers; in the midst of the shield flowers and heart flowers stood popcorn flowers, yellow tobacco flowers, cacao flowers, [made into] wreaths for the head, wreaths to be girded around. James Lockhart, We People Here: Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico, Repertorium Columbianum v. 1 (Los Angeles: UCLA Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 1993), 114. xochitica namicoque yhuã quinxochitzetzelloque = They were met with flowers and had flowers sprinkled over them. (early seventeenth century, central New Spain) Annals of His Time: Don Domingo de San Antón Muñón Chimalpahin Quauhtlehuanitzin, James Lockhart, Susan Schroeder, and Doris Namala, eds. and transl. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006), 50–51. iquac xochimanaloya: ioã covaixcalmanaloya. = At this time flowers were offered and roasted snakes were offered. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, Primeros Memoriales, ed. Thelma D. Sullivan, et al. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997), 57. xochitl = Flower, a name said to be given exclusively to boys, but it is also in the list for girls' names. Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, Primeros Memoriales, ed. Thelma D. Sullivan, et al. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1997), 254, 255. A woman named Inés Xochitl, who appears in a Nahuatl testament of 1639 in the Tepozotlan region, is called Inés Flores and Inés de Rosas in two places in the translation of the testament. Vidas y bienes olvidados: Testamentos en náhuatl y castellano del siglo XVII, vol. 3, Teresa Rojas Rabiela, et al, eds. (México: CIESAS, 2002), 208–217. ytoca xochitl = named Xochitl (attested as male; husband of Tecapan) (Cuernavaca region, ca. 1540s) The Book of Tributes: Early Sixteenth-Century Nahuatl Censuses from Morelos, ed. and transl. S. L. Cline, (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1993), 146–147. y tequitqui ytoca xochitl yn içivauh ytoca tecapa = The tribute payer is named Xochitl. His wife is named Tecapan. (Cuernavaca region, ca. 1540s) The Book of Tributes: Early Sixteenth-Century Nahuatl Censuses from Morelos, ed. and transl. S. L. Cline, (Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center Publications, 1993), 172–173. Martín Xochitl; Miguel Xochitl = both were Mexica men who were arrested in Mexico City for protesting rising tributes in July 1564 Luis Reyes García, ¿Como te confundes? ¿Acaso no somos conquistados? Anales de Juan Bautista (Mexico: Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social, Biblioteca Lorenzo Boturini Insigne y Nacional Basílica de Guadalupe, 2001), 222–223.iehica ca ic oqujmomaceuj, in mavizçotl, in xuchitl yn ietl, in tilmantli: ynjc amo çan nenpoliuiz itiiacauhio: iuhqujnma ic contleiocujliaia malli = Because thus he attained honors, flowers, tobacco prepared for smoking, and [rich] cloaks. Thus the captive’s valor would not in vain perish; thus he took from the captive his renown. (16th century, Mexico City)
Fr. Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain; Book 2—The Ceremonies, No. 14, Part III, eds. and transl. Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble (Santa Fe and Salt Lake City: School of American Research and the University of Utah, 1951), 48.yn iiacac vitz xochitl ic tlamanalo, aiac achto qujnecuj, intlacamo achto ic tlamanaz = It was the first flowers to appear which were thus given as offerings. None might breathe the scent without first providing an offering. (16th century, Mexico City)
Fr. Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex: General History of the Things of New Spain; Book 2—The Ceremonies, No. 14, Part III, eds. and transl. Arthur J. O. Anderson and Charles E. Dibble (Santa Fe and Salt Lake City: School of American Research and the University of Utah, 1951), 55.

Attestations from sources in Spanish: 

axcan ypan xapato mo poa nahui cali tecpatl cali tochi acatl chihuitl cahuitl zipatli= ehecatl= cali= cuespali= cohuatl= miquistli= masatl= tochi= atl= iscuintli= osomatl= minali= acatl= ocelotl= quautli= coscaquautli= olin= tecpatl= quiahuitl= chochitl = ahoy en éste día sábado que se cuenta cuatro casa. Pedernal, Casa, Consejo, Caña, signos de los años en el Tiempo estos cuatro signos se cuentan. Lagarto, Mono, Viento, Yerba tocida, Casa, Caña, Lagartija, Tigre, Culebra, Aguila, Muerte, Aguila de collar, Venado, Movimiento, Conejo, Pedernal, Agua, Lluvia, Perro, Flor (Estado de Hidalgo, ca. 1722?) Rocío Cortés, El "nahuatlato Alvarado" y el Tlalamatl Huauhquilpan: Mecanismos de la memoria colectiva de una comunidad indígena (New York: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, Colonial Spanish American Series, 2011), 34, 46-47. in tlen oni na huatiloc ipan i tlanahuatilsin in to huei tlatoca sin ca otlaposaloc omo nextico mostin in alte pehuaque tlacalaqui ihuan moxtin in teteu ti tlatoque oquimo namiquilique xochitica = con el cargo que me fué encomendado tocante al mandato de nuestro gran Señor el Rey, pues, por ésto, hubo música cuando vinieron á aparecer todos los vecinos del pueblo, los tributarios y todos los Señores Principales, a todos los encontraron con flores (Estado de Hidalgo, ca. 1722?) Rocío Cortés, El "nahuatlato Alvarado" y el Tlalamatl Huauhquilpan: Mecanismos de la memoria colectiva de una comunidad indígena (New York: Hispanic Seminary of Medieval Studies, Colonial Spanish American Series, 2011), 34, 46. yn mohuenmanaz yn oncan teupan candelas aço xuchiqualli anoço totolin vino = se ofrendará allá en la iglesia: velas, o cadenas de flores, o guajolote, [o] vino (Tetepango, Hidalgo, 1586) Vidas y bienes olvidados: Testamentos indígenas novohispanos, vol. 2, Testamentos en náhuatl y castellano del siglo XVI, eds., Teresa Rojas Rabiela, Elsa Leticia Rea López, Constantino Medina Lima (Mexico: Consejo Nacional de Ciencias Tecnología, 1999), 262–263. xo:chit = xochitl No na:n guite:gui ne xo:chit. = Mi mama: corta las flores. (Sonsonate, El Salvador, Nahuat or Pipil, s. XX) Tirso Canales, Nahuat (San Salvador: Universidad de El Salvador, Editorial Universitaria, 1996), 19–24.